“Moŋgoliya,” A Contemporary Novel of Strip Mining, Quests for the Altaic Soul and Social Justice

Moŋgoliya

《蒙古里亚》     郭雪波 著

Original novel in Chinese by Guo Xuebo
Synopsis by Bruce Humes

 

 

A tale of ruthless ecological exploitation,

a 20th-century European explorer’s fascination with Altaic culture

& epiphany in today’s Inner Mongolia

This semi-autobiographical novel comprises three parallel narratives that eventually intersect in 21st-century Inner Mongolia: A spiritual journey, in which the author — ostensibly the narrator — seeks his Shamanic roots, long obscured in post-1949, officially atheist China; vignettes from the Xinjiang and Mongolian adventures of Henning Haslund-Christensen, born to a Danish missionary family in 1896, explorer and real-life author of the anthropological masterpiece Men and Gods in Mongolia; and the tribulations of Teelee Yesu, a fictional modern-day Mongolian herdsman, seemingly the village idiot, whose very survival is threatened by the encroaching desert and coal mine truckers running roughshod over his tiny tract of pastureland.

Motifs interwoven throughout the tale include the affinities between the peoples of Europe and the Mongols, despite the sedentary lifestyle of the former and nomadic ways of the latter; the fusion of Shamanism and Buddhism over the centuries; two different quests, the narrator’s for the origins of his soul, and the foreign adventurer’s for the essence of steppe culture; and the exploitation and degradation of the grasslands by political powers over the centuries — first the Manchu, then the Japanese and Han — that is in stark contrast to the Mongolian veneration of Nature as sacred and endowed with sentient spirits.

*****

Guo Xuebo, author of “Moŋgoliya”

Now a renowned author based in China’s capital, narrator Guo is back for a visit to the Inner Mongolian village where he grew up speaking the language of his people. One day he finds himself at the summit of Mt. Gahai, the location of an ovoo — a heap of stones marking a sacred site — said to be a Shaman’s altar. Eager for an afternoon siesta, he closes his copy of Men and Gods in Mongolia, pillows his head with it and wonders what has pulled him here like a magnet. Could it be the tufts of slender needlegrass that pepper the mountaintop? Dubbed “the soul’s perch,” it is believed that the soul of a recently deceased person will fix itself atop a strand of needlegrass. When the stalk does not bend, the disembodied spirit realizes that it has shed its mortal coil.

Da Yeye, a long-dead Shaman and elder brother of the author’s paternal grandfather, appears in Guo’s dream. Each human being possesses a tripartite soul, he pronounces: One part inherited from one’s parents, another from one’s ancestors, and a third, a wandering spirit whose reincarnation in the world of the living is pre-destined. The author has recently been consumed by a keen desire to learn about Shamanism, despite repeated campaigns by the Party since the 1950s to eradicate such superstitions. He heard tell there were Shamans among his ancestors. “Where did my ‘third soul’ come from?” he queries anxiously.

This is something Da Yeye will not reveal. The answer must occur through personal revelation. “Return home and ask your mother what happened at your birth.” For now, the author should do his best to look after someone named

The Lion of Denmark: Henning-Haslund’s seal in Chinese, Tibetan and Mongolian (collection of Denmark’s Nationalmuseets Samlinger Online)

Teelee Yesu, he says enigmatically. “And never forget: You must not stop simply because the journey is long, nor fail to move a boulder simply because it is heavy.” And with that, the apparition vanishes.

As Guo descends the mountain, he encounters a stranger — named “Teelee Yesu”— searching for three head of missing cattle. Thus begins the saga of the narrator’s involvement with this deceptively simple-minded Mongolian herdsman, who will pop up throughout the tale.

Perceived locally as a writer with influential Beijing connections, Guo frequently intercedes on behalf of his relative, as much out of curiosity as sympathy. Teelee, it emerges, is housing a “crazy” Han woman, already several months pregnant, whom he discovered wandering in the sand dunes. Incoherent and babbling a Chinese dialect no one can decipher, she urgently requires pre-natal care, and Guo, moved by the devotion Teelee and this mysterious woman show one another, arranges hospitalization for her. At one point, in an attempt to obtain compensation from the coal mine for his sheep flattened by one of their trucks, Teelee ingeniously threatens to set himself on fire (see excerpt). When Teelee is briefly jailed, and interrogated in the middle of the night by unidentified agents — self-immolation is treated as a “terrorist” act in today’s PRC — Guo visits and tries to get him released. [Read more…]

非洲文学:中文译本 (African Writing in Chinese Translation)

非洲文学:178 中文译本

African Writing in Chinese Translation

(包含大陆、港台等版本)

(PRC, Hong Kong and Taiwan editions)

更新/Updated: 2019.3.21

69 African Authors   178 Translated Works

本 “迷你数据库” 刚开始建设,绝对不算齐全,只供参阅。至今,原文多半是英文,法文或葡萄牙文的书籍。虽也有一些本来是用阿拉伯语写的 (例如纳吉布·马哈福兹的著作),因为我不会阿语,我列的是英文的书名。当然,希望将来能包括其他本地语言,例如斯瓦希里、科薩語等。“年” 指的是译著出版年,而非原著作出版时间。欢迎留言!

最新出版译著 (2018-19 年),请寻找 ***** 在作品旁。

This “mini” database is an ongoing project and is for reference only. To date, most of the original texts are in colonial languages such as English, French or Portuguese. Although some were originally penned in Arabic (for example, the work of Naguib Mahfouz), since I don’t know how to input Arabic, I tend to list those titles in English. The bulk of the list proceeds according to the native surname of the author.

Of course, I look forward to including titles translated from Africa’s indigenous languages in the future, such as Swahili, Xhosa, Wolof, etc. “Year” refers to the publication date of the Chinese edition, not that of the original work. Updates, corrections and suggestions are welcome!

For most recent publication in Chinese (2018-19), look for ***** next to book title.

 

Chimamanda Adichie is leading the rise

of an African literature wave in China

 

African Literature 2018:

On China’s Cultural Radar Yet?

 

2018 Round-up:

Afro-Lit in Chinese Translation

 

Introduction to African Drama  

Introduction to African Epics 

  • 松迪亚塔》(鲍秀文 译, 2003 年)。介绍了松迪亚塔、盖西瑞的诗琴、姆比盖的传说、李昂戈·富莫的传说和姆温都史诗等五个史诗

Introduction to African Literature

African Fairy Tale Anthology

African Poetry Collections

  • Contemporary African Poetry非洲现代诗选》(奥卡拉, 奥基格博, 索因卡, 克拉尔克, 奥弗穆尼)
  • No Serenity Here 《这里不平静》(冷霜, 席亚兵, 周伟驰, 杨铁军, 姜涛, 韩博, 余炀, 叶美, 张曙光, 丁丽英, 张伟栋)  (雷武铃、成婴 等译, 2010 年)

African Short Story Collections 

Taiwan Editions of African Fiction

 

Listings by Author’s Surname

Leila Aboulela (阿布列拉; 阿鮑蕾拉; 阿布雷雅; 莉拉·阿鲍蕾拉 萊雅‧阿布雷雅)

Peter Abrahams (彼得·亚伯拉罕姆斯)

Chinua Achebe (钦努阿•阿契贝)

Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie (奇玛曼达·恩戈齐·阿迪奇埃)

José Eduardo Agualusa (裘瑟·阿古瓦盧薩; 若泽·爱德华多·阿瓜卢萨)

Ama Ata Aidoo (阿玛·阿塔·艾杜)

Uwem Akpan (乌文·阿克潘)

T. M. Aluko

Meshack Asare (米沙克·阿萨尔)

Mariama Bâ (瑪莉亞瑪·芭)

A. Igoni Barrett  (A. 伊各尼·巴雷特)

Ishmael Beah (伊斯梅尔·比亚)

Tahar Ben Jelloun (塔哈尔·本·杰伦)

C

Faarax M.J. Cawl (奥勒 )

Joyce Chigiya (乔伊斯·齐基娅)

  • Lake Haven 海文湖》(姜涛 译, 2014 年)

J. M. Coetzee (J.M.库切)

  • Age of Iron铁器时代》(文敏 译, 2013 年)
  • Boyhood: Scenes from Provincial Life男孩》(文敏 译, 2013 年)
  • Childhood of Jesus 耶稣的童年》(文敏 译, 2013 年)
  • Diary of a Bad Year  凶年纪事》(文敏 译, 2009 年)
  • Disgrace   《》(张冲  译, 2010 年)
  • In the Heart of the Country内陆深处》(文敏 译, 2007 年)
  • Life & Times of Michael K迈克尔·K 的生活和时代》(文敏 译, 2004 年)
  • Summertime夏日》(文敏 译, 2010 年)
  • Waiting for the Barbarians  《等待野蛮人》(文敏 译, 2003 年)

Mia Couto (米亚·科托)

[Read more…]

The Epic of Manas (玛纳斯史诗): A Multilingual Guide to Related Links

《玛纳斯史诗》

The Epic of Manas

A Multilingual Guide to Related Links

General

《中国史诗》(Chinese)

  • Comprehensive 591-page study of China’s oral epics by scholars Lang Ying (朗樱) and J. Rincindorji (仁钦道尔吉). Dedicates 40 pages to Manas, including synopsis, Kyrgyz oral storytelling tradition, manasqi.

The Kyrgyz Epic Manas

  • Selections translated, introduced and annotated by then Ph.D. candidate Elmira Köçümkulkızı, U of Washington (Seattle). Based upon Saiakbai Karalaev’s rendition of the epic.

57 万行《玛纳斯》手抄本被发现原本已被烧毁 (Chinese)

  • News item about discovery of hand-copied Manas libretto in 2014, buried for 56 years to prevent its destruction during the Cultural Revolution. Based on the notes of a manasqi named 艾什玛特·玛木别朱素普.

Legend of Manas

“Manas” Onstage: Ongoing Moves to Sinicize China’s Three Great Oral Epics

 

Manasqi

居素普·玛玛依评传 (Chinese)

  • Comprehensive 311-page biography by Adili Zhumaturdu (阿地力·朱玛吐尔地) and Tohan Shayik (托汗·依莎克) — bordering on a hagiography — of the recently deceased master manasqi Jusup Mamay. Details his upbringing in Xinjiang, manasqi and texts that influenced him, and recounts how he recited and helped textualize all eight parts of his classic version of the epic — 232,500 lines — despite persecution during the Cultural Revolution. (Note: This work is currently being translated into English by Xi’an International Studies University professor Liang Zhenhui (梁真惠) ).

The Bard Jusup Mamay

  • Biography of the most renowned Xinjiang-based, 20th-century manasqi by Manas scholar Lang Ying, published in the academic journal Oral Tradition.

Jusup Mamay, Manaschi: A Rehabilitated Rightist and his Turkic Epic

  • A critical look at how the Chinese literary establishment has lionized the tale and its master storyteller in the interests of cultural appropriation.

Yusuf Mamay ve Manas Destani (Turkish)

  • A study of Jusup Mamay and the Epic of Manas by Turkish scholar Alimcan Inayet.

Kyrgyz Students Vanish Into Xinjiang’s Maw

  • Gene Bunin reports that Turgunaly Tursunaly, grandson of Jusup Mamay and also himself a manasqi, has disappeared and has likely been detained in the Xinjiang Gulag of “re-education centers” (教育转化中心) for Uyghurs, Kazakhs and Kyrgyz.

 

Research into Translations of the Epic

玛纳斯》翻译传播研究(Chinese)

  •  This 316-page tome by Liang Zhenhui (梁真惠) details and compares various foreign language renditions and their dissemination.

Interviews of Chinese-to-English Literary Translator Bruce Humes

Links to Interviews of

Chinese-to-English Literary Translator Bruce Humes

(under construction/建设中)

 

Chimamanda Adichie is leading the rise of an African literature wave in China

  • African fiction in Chinese translation  *  Popularity of diaspora writers

 

A Glimpse into a Different World: The Millions Interviews Bruce Humes

  • Translating Confessions of a Jade Lord, a novel by Uyghur author Alat Asem set in Xinjiang

 

How a writer gives voice to China’s ethnic minorities by translating their stories

  • Childhood: Memories of fascination with foreign tongues  *  Life in wild border town Shenzhen  *  An intense desire to think, live and dream in Chinese  *  Exploring China’s many “Other”  *  Transitioning to Africa

 

迟子建:从额尔古纳河右岸到大洋彼岸

 

Bruce Humes & his Shanghai Baby

  • The translation process  *  As a male translating a female author  *  Zha Jianying on Shanghai Baby

 

The BTS Interview: Bruce Humes 徐穆实

  • Translating Fan Wen’s Canticle to the Land  *  Post-Gezi-Protest world: China no longer “home”  *  Chinese exceptionalism and walls

 

专访:海外译者提倡把话语权还给少数民族作家

Guo Xuebo’s “Moŋgoliya”: Guide to Related Links

Guo Xuebo’s “Moŋgoliya”

《蒙古里亚》(郭雪波 著)

 

A tale of ruthless ecological exploitation,

a 20th-century European explorer’s fascination with Altaic culture

& epiphany in today’s Inner Mongolia

 

Backgrounder

Author’s Bio + Major Works + Foreign Editions

Présentation: Guo Xuebo (in French)

Writer of the Month: Leeds Centre for New Chinese Writing

 

Synopsis

“Moŋgoliya,” A Contemporary Novel of Strip Mining, Quests for the Altaic Soul and Social Justice

 

Excerpt from the Novel

The Mongol Would-be Self-immolatorChinese  English  Turkish

 

Links to Complete Works in Chinese

豆瓣

Backgrounder: Mongolian author Guo Xuebo

Author’s Bio

Although he writes in Chinese, Guo Xuebo (郭雪波) is fiercely proud of his Mongolian heritage and was raised in Inner Mongolia’s Khorchin Grasslands (Hure Banner). Now 71 and bilingual, he spoke Mongolian at home and school until he was 13. He graduated from Beijing’s prestigious Central Academy of Drama (Department of Literature and Drama) in 1980, and in the same year, passed the entrance exam to Hohhot’s Institute of Literature under the Inner Mongolia Academy of Social Sciences. Since 1984, he has held the post of Assistant Researcher at this institute, undertaking research in various aspects of Mongolian history, culture and drama.

In  2018, he participated in Symposium – Space to Speak: Non-Han Fiction and Film in China and Beyond, held at the University of Leeds in the UK. In fact, as a popular indigenous author of borderland fiction and scholar of Mongolian culture and history, over the years he has frequently been invited overseas. In 2004, he took part in France’s Salon du Livre as a member of the China Writers Association delegation. He attended the 2009 Frankfurt Book Fair when China was the Country of Honor, participated in literary salons in Munich and Düsseldorf, and was interviewed by Deutsche Welle in Bonn. He delivered a speech, The Mongols: Religion, Culture & Nature Worship, at Canada’s University of Waterloo in 2016, and was invited as a visiting scholar by New Zealand’s University of Auckland, where he delivered a lecture on Mongolian folk culture in 2017.

 

Major Works, Motifs & Awards

Guo Xuebo is a prolific writer who has published seven novels including Moŋgoliya (《蒙古里亚》2014), over a dozen collections of novellas and short stories, and authored three screenplays for Chinese-language films, including those based on his novel Wolf Child (《大漠狼孩》a best-seller in China) and short story Desert Fox (《沙狼》translated into several languages).

His writing strongly reflects his upbringing in the grasslands of northern China and his Mongolian roots and culture. Themes include wildlife on the steppe and in the desert, often recounted from an animal’s perspective; animism, and the role of Shaman as both a spiritual mediator and a community leader; and the history of interaction — and sometimes violent friction — between the indigenous Mongolian herders, the ruling Manchu during the Qing dynasty, and the Han who came to exploit the land as miners and sedentary farmers.

Guo Xuebo’s fiction has won significant recognition outside mainland China. His Desert Fox was chosen for inclusion in a volume of short stories, part of the UNESCO Collection of Representative Works (a translation project, 1948-2005). His novella, The Desert Soul, won Taiwan’s United Daily News 18th Literature Prize, and his novella, Stepfather, was awarded the Religious Literature Prize co-sponsored by Taiwan’s Central Daily News and Ling Jiou Mountain Buddhist Society.

For a one-stop view of Guo Xuebo’s published works in Chinese, visit douban (豆瓣).

 

Foreign Language Editions 

A collection of 4 of his short stories (The Desert Wolf, The Sand Fox, Sand Rites, Sand Burial) has been published in English (The Desert Fox), French (La renarde du désert), Japanese (砂漠の物語) and German (bilingual). Several of his novels are currently in translation, including The Wolf Child (Korean), and Hero of Inner Mongolia, Gada Meiren (《青旗·嘎达梅林》Mongolian). An excerpt from his novel Moŋgoliya, The Mongol Would-be Self-immolator, has been published online by Asia-Pacific Journal.

Quote of the Week: Alexander Dawe on Translating Turkey’s Tanpınar

‘Learn the original language before you try recasting it in another,’ they might rightly say. ‘And then you won’t make so many mistakes.’ And I certainly made my share of those. But is it not through reformulation, trial and error, constant digging that we begin to reach some kind of higher ground? Is translation not a vision of the perfect conversation. One that is always rising. In which both sides truly listen, one person not only working to save the other, win an argument, swim faster, gain ground; it is a calm and balanced sense of the immediate moment that makes for a more sublime transfer of ideas, a shared idiom, a spirited common language; it is a beautiful balloon kept up in air by two friends tapping it gently back and forth.

(Alexander Dawe, excerpted from Lost and Found: A Few Words on Translating Tanpinar, Bosphorus Review of Books)

非漂 [Fēi Piāo]:非洲文学在中国 — 2018 年终总结

非洲文学在中国 —

2018 年终总结

Bruce Humes/文

(徐穆实,非漂 [Fēi Piāo] 博主)

一年时间,大有不同。

2017年,中国大陆渴望体验非洲文学的读者只能看到 8 种新作,全部从英语或法语翻译。作

米亚·科托《梦游之地》,2018 年译成中文的葡语小说之一

者身份也偏重那些侨居海外的著名“流浪”作家,如 Chimamanda Adichie (奇玛曼达·阿迪奇埃)和 Alain Mabanckou (阿兰·马邦库)。而且 8 种有 3 种作者是尼日利亚人。

近两年,我通过建立“非洲文学:中文译本”(African Writing in Chinese Translation)双语数据库,记录非洲文学引进中国的情况。数据库收录的引进版非洲文学作品,从 1960 年代以来到 2018 年末,总共有 143 种。搜集的大部分是中长篇小说,也有少数短篇小说集、诗集。

2018 年一年的新作品达到13种,也更加多样:

  • 多半译自葡萄牙语或阿拉伯语
  • 四名作者来自葡语系国家(安哥拉、莫桑比克),三名来自地中海沿岸国家,其他来自撒哈拉以南非葡语系国家(肯尼亚、尼日利亚、南非)
  • 体裁有中长篇、短篇集、戏剧

多样化之外,还有一个好兆头:这些新书大部分是原版(葡语、阿语)直接翻译,不是英译本转译。我还没有向出版商确认,但网上多种信息表明,一部分这些译者有葡语、阿语高等文凭,翻译过几本葡语、阿语书。

中国出版商一直有个不招人待见的坏习惯,引人误会:书脊、版权页上只说了作者国籍,却不一定标明这本书译自什么语言。于是,读东非文学的中国读者完全有理由相信,某本小说的中文版是从斯瓦西里语直接翻的,其实是从英译文转译的。这种 “暧昧” 也许是因为国内某些小语种的译者实在太少,出版商又希望少花钱,缩短上市的时间,就会从英译文转译。

陶菲格·哈基姆《洞中人》,被认为是埃及第一部在出版之后几年有幸上演的剧本

我最近的另外一篇文章《Can Literary Exports Change Chinese Perceptions of Africa? 》当中写到非洲文学翻译出版在中国大约有三次 “浪潮”:

第一次浪潮发生在 1980 年代,受意识形态驱动。国家政策要增进与第三世界、新独立国家的团结,于是外文出版社等国营机构翻译出版了大量非洲作品,如:尼日利亚作家 Wole Soyinka (沃莱·索因卡),肯尼亚小说家 Ngugi wa Thiong’o (恩古吉·瓦·提安哥),塞内加尔诗人(前总统)Léopold Sédar Senghor (列奥波尔德·塞达·桑戈尔),Mouloud Mammeri (阿尔及利亚作家穆鲁德·玛梅利) 等。甚至还给儿童出了非洲民间故事选集。

到了90 年代和 21 世纪,中国的非洲文学引进却变得头重脚轻,只重视一些摘得诺贝尔文学奖等世界级文学大奖的明星作家。引进速度变慢,而且专注于诺奖得主,例如在南非出生或长大的欧洲裔作家 J. M. Coetzee (J.M.库切)、Nadine Gordimer (纳丁·戈迪默),Naguib Mahfouz (埃及作家纳吉布·马哈福兹)。有社会主义色彩的思想家作品反而相对被忽视。

相比之下,2018 年 “进口” 的非洲作品各有特色,令人耳目一新。诚然,尼日利亚作家奇玛曼达·阿迪奇埃(今年翻译列表上的 “二进宫”)和莫桑比克作家 Mia Couto(米亚·科托)早已在国际文坛上混得风生水起,出版商因此而认定他们在中国也能大卖。但至少,他们不再是诺贝尔奖得主或者是英国曼布克奖得主了,更不再是尼日利亚的

在尼日利亚出生长大,侨居海外的“流浪”作家奇玛曼达·阿迪奇埃最新作品

钦努阿·阿契贝或者沃莱·索因卡之类的非洲第一代经典作家了。(参见:《Still Stuck on ‘Things Fall Apart’?》 )

此外,这 13 种书,有几种的原著是几十年前出版的,显然并不是因为在国际市场上正当红而被选中。包括:埃及作家陶菲格·哈基姆剧本《洞中人》,1933 年第一版;还有肯尼亚作家恩古吉·瓦·提安哥的短篇小说集《隐居》,1975年第一版。古吉·瓦·提安哥坚持用其母语 Kikuyu(吉库尤语) 写作,以此闻名。还有一本短篇集《大地的葬礼》,收录 14 位南非作家的短篇小说,都是 1994 年南非种族隔离打破之前那些年创作的。

“Confessions of a Jade Lord”: Synopsis + related links

My co-translation of Uyghur author Alat Asem’s novel set in Xinjiang has been published.  Here is a brief synopsis of sorts, taken straight off the book’s back cover:

Confessions of a Jade Lord

《时间悄悄的嘴脸》(阿拉提·阿斯木  著)

 

“Tell Eysa that he cannot live by drifting in the wind.

He should return and live in his own skin.

Only then will he be my son.” 

 

To get his greedy hands on nine hefty chunks of priceless creamy white, “mutton-fat” jade, Eysa and his gang administer a merciless beating to Xali, a fellow trader. Fearing arrest, Eysa flees Xinjiang for Shanghai where a plastic surgeon fits him with a state-of-the-art mask that allows him to return home, initially undetected even by his kin. But as his feud with Xali deepens — it emerges Xali was only maimed, not killed — Eysa gradually realizes the futility of attempting to amass a fortune under Time’s mute gaze.

Decades of double-digit growth have spawned a generation of nouveau riche in the booming 21st-century metropolises of Beijing, Shanghai and Shenzhen, spurring desire for fine jade, a traditional badge of wealth, and kick starting a modern-day “jade rush.” But supply is jealously guarded by the Turkic-speaking, Muslim Uyghur whose homeland — Xinjiang in China’s far northwest, a land of oases and massive desert once crisscrossed by camel caravans — remains the ultimate source for milk-white suet jade.

Confessions of a Jade Lord immerses us in an underworld peopled by gangsters with their penchant for firewater-fueled storytelling and philosophical reverie, appetite for Uyghur delicacies such as laghman hand-pulled noodles and whole roasted lamb, fierce loyalty to family and aghines, and a willingness to unsheathe their daggers when honor, brotherhood or jade require.

Alat Asem’s fiction is a Uyghur universe where Han Chinese rarely figure. His hallmarks are serial womanizers — real hanzi who piss standing, not squatting — monikers that belittle, and a hybrid lingo with an odd but appealing Central Asian flavor.

Alat Asem is Leeds Centre for New Chinese Writing, Writer of the Month (Jan 2019)

For detailed bilingual information about the novel and its author, please visit Alat Asem’s《时间悄悄的嘴脸》: Guide to Related Links.

For a brief English excerpt from Confessions of a Jade Lord, visit here.

Two reviews are also up online now: One that ran in Turkey’s Daily Sabah, and another by a bilingual reviewer who read both the English and Chinese novels. To access the latter, you will need to go here, scroll down and click on the reviewer’s name, Cuilin Sang.

非漂 [Fēi Piāo] Quote of the Week: Travels of a Linguistic Nomad

My attachment to my mother tongue is emotional; my attachment to English is cerebral. I feel like I need both to balance myself. Over time, I have also realized that if there is melancholy, longing, sadness in my writing, I find it easier to express these in Turkish.

But when it comes to irony, satire, sarkiness, I find it easier in English.  The word “irony” does not even exist in Turkish.

(Elif Şafak in Travels of a Linguistic Nomad)