Categories
Altaic Peoples & Tales (阿尔泰各民族及其故事)

Fine-tuning the Spin: Xinjiang’s Awkward Not-so-Chinese Mummies

Uh-oh. Looks like those suspiciously Caucasian mummies from Xinjiang are making trouble again. Or so says an AP report in early January 2011:

PHILADELPHIA (AP) — A museum just days away from opening a long-awaited exhibit including two mummies and other historical artifacts from China is gutting the display of all objects at the request of Chinese officials, the museum announced Wednesday.

The artifacts were part of “Secrets of the Silk Road,” which is scheduled to open Saturday at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology in Philadelphia. The exhibit has already traveled to museums in California and Texas without issue. Visitors to the Philadelphia museum will see a pared-down exhibit.

But China’s sensitivities about mummies with Caucasian features unearthed in Xinjiang are long-standing. Here’s a piece I wrote last year showing how foreign news reports about these mummies are translated into Chinese and then edited to ensure political correctness:

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Imagine you work for the China Unity Department: It’s your 24/7 mission to convey that, more or less since Day One, the Middle Kingdom has ruled all the land claimed by the PRC, including Taiwan, Tibet and Xinjiang.

Categories
Interviews: Authors and Translators (作家与译者的采访)

Interview: Author Murong Xuecun (慕容雪村) on his Undercover Role Investigating a Chinese Pyramid Scheme

Murong Xuecun has gained a name for himself through his unflattering vignettes of gambling, drinking, whoring and corruption in contemporary China. His best-seller, Leave me Alone: A Novel of Chengdu (成都,今夜请将我遗忘), prompted the authorities to convene a conference solely to critique the novel for sullying the Sichuan city’s image.

Murong Xuecun went undercover for 23 days to document the pyramid scheme in person

But in a change of tack away from fiction writing, early this year the author decided to experience—first hand—just how a “direct selling” operation in Jiangxi’s Shangrao recruits and gains control over its members. His revelations hit the stands as the cover story for Southern Metropolis Weekly’s April 19 (2010) edition: “Murong Xuecun—Undercover 23 Days in a Pyramid Selling Organization” (慕容雪村卧底传销23天之一).

Below, I (Bruce Humes) interview author-turned-investigative-journalist Murong Xuecun (慕容雪村) to learn how he did it, and why:

Q: What made you decide to “go under cover,” submit to pyramid selling “brainwashing,” and eventually call in the police?

A: At the outset, it was curiosity that motivated me to try to sneak into the pyramid selling organization. I just wanted to see what you could get to eat for 35 Chinese cents [5 US cents] a day. During my 23 days there, I saw many absurd and evil things. Lots of good but naïve people were being hoodwinked and living miserably, so I decided to report it to the police.

Q: Serious social problems abound in today’s China: the omnipresent sex industry, bribery of officials, ruthless exploitation of migrant workers. Why focus on bogus “chain sales”?

A: There are many other matters that need attention, like those citizens in re-education-through-labor camps who have been deprived of their freedom without a trial, working-class people who have nowhere to appeal when thrown out of their homes violently by relocation programs, and those alleged criminals who die in detention due to some bizarre causes… but my abilities are limited. Many things cannot be investigated, we can only address them one by one. Perhaps in the future I will investigate the sex industry and the situation of migrant workers.

Q: How do you assess the effect of your “underground” work, including the reaction to your cover story in Southern Metropolis Weekly? Does a professional writer have a responsibility to engage in such activities?

A: I originally believed that my going “undercover” would help some people, serve as a wake-up call for some people, but I must admit it: I have failed. I helped the police get their hands on 157 pyramid scheme marketers, and reasonably speaking, the police should have helped them to face what they had done, and then taken responsibility for sending them back home. But the police performed their duty in a perfunctory manner. In a symbolic gesture, they kept them standing in the police station courtyard for two hours, but they made no attempt to educate them and eventually just chased them out. Not long after I left Shangrao, they regrouped and began their pyramid selling as before. But I do hope that the cover story in Southern Metropolis Weekly and “How Could you be so Ignorant?” will serve as a warning and help them avoid being swindled. “Going undercover” was very meaningful. It allowed me to gather first-hand material for my writing, and it moved me deeply. But I took this action on my own, and it is unrelated to professional writers as a group.

Q: Use one sentence to describe how readers in China typify the author “Murong Xuecun”.

A: The lion’s share of readers believe that I am a writer who “sees the world for what it is, excels at dredging up man’s inherent evil, and writes in a rather dark style”. Or a “sharply critical, relentless, pulls-no-punches” writer.

Q: Your previous novels, Leave me Alone Tonight: A Novel of Chengdu, and Dancing through Red Dust (红尘颠 ) describe the darker side of Chinese society, particularly the ruthlessness and immorality of businesspeople. Have any of your works been heavily edited or even banned? If so, what content was deemed problematic? Where did such pressure originate? How have such experiences impacted your writing?

A: About twenty thousand words were cut from Dancing through Red Dust. And more than ten thousand words were deleted from the first version of Leave me Alone Tonight: A Novel of Chengdu, but one year later the full version was published. After three years of examination by the censors, the

Nipped in the bud: Murong Xuecun estimates 20,000 words of the Chinese original were cut

film adaptation was granted a permit for public viewing, but this was quickly rescinded. The TV show was abruptly yanked off the air at CCTV, and no explanation was ever given. If I were to hazard a guess, I’d say it’s because the authorities considered my novel to be “written in a vulgar style that sullied the image of Chengdu”. In 2004, the Chengdu municipal authorities convened a meeting specifically to critique the novel. Heavy editing of the novel was undertaken by the publisher, because it has responsibility for undertaking “in-house censorship”; as for limits placed on the movie and TV versions, they would have come from the State Administration of Radio, Film and Television. This censorship and limitations haven’t had a big impact on my writing, but they have clarified for me which subjects cannot be written about or touched upon, which words have to be avoided, and which people I must not mention.

Q: What format do you intend to use for the longer work, “How Could you be so Ignorant?”, to be based on your undercover experiences during January 2010?

A: I will use an investigative reporting style to relate what I have personally experienced. Even though it is not a storyline dominated by constantly

“How Could you be so Ignorant?”: Subsequently published as 中国, 少了一味药 but never published in English

shifting highs and lows, the experience has been very meaningful. My previous works were mainly fictional, but this time I will change my technique.

Q: Will foreign readers be interested in “How Could you be so Ignorant?”

A: Frankly speaking, I didn’t give their reactions any thought. I’m keener to write for Chinese readers, particularly those who lack common sense, young people who are easily fooled or those without education.