May 2016: Altaic Storytelling Newsbriefs

走进中国少数民族丛书·蒙古族  (lit., Up Close with the Mongols) the latest volume in a series of 走进中国少数民族丛书·蒙古族Chinese-language books that will eventually profile each of China’s 55 officially designated minority ethnicities, has been launched. It is published by Liaoning Ethnic Publishing House. To date, 8 books featuring peoples of northeast China are out: Daur, Evenki, Hezhen, Korean (Chaoxian), Manchu, Mongols, Oroqen, and Xibe.

An exhibition showcasing the lifestyle of the Oroqen (鄂伦春) has opened at the new Huma Museum (呼玛博物馆) in Heilongjiang’s Greater Khingan Mountains (大兴安岭). The Oroqen are a Tungusic-speaking people closely related to the reindeer-herding Evenki (鄂温克) who figure in Chi Zijian’s Last Quarter of the Moon. Displays feature the Oroqen’s mobile housing, known to the Han as 撮罗子 (similar to teepee of native North Americans), hunting, dancing and Shamanism.

1944, a ballad sung by Jamala evoking the deportation of Crimean Tatars by Josef Stalin, has won the 2016 Eurovision song contest for Ukraine (Politically Charged). Inevitably, the song’s lyrics are interpreted as a criticism of Russia’s annexation of Crimea in 2014 via Putin’s “Little Green Men.” The Crimean Tatars emerged as a nation at the time of the Crimean Khanate, an Ottoman vassal state, during the 15th to 18th centuries. Tatar is a Turkic language, classified as a member of the West Kipchak branch.

Madonna in a Fur Coat (Kürk Mantolu Madonna) by the 20th-century Turkish author Sabahattin Ali has just been published in English by Penguin. Translated by Maureen Freely, the novel centers on a post-World War I love affair between Turkish student Raif Efendi and a German singer, Maria Screen Shot 2016-05-07 at 10.35.02Puder, in Berlin. The Turkish edition has sold 750,000 copies “in the last three years alone,” according to one article (Glorious Comeback). It appears that the Chinese edition (I think this is the same novel) appeared way before Penguin got around to it, however, as 穿皮大衣的玛利亚 was out back in 1984. At any rate, the Turkish have a curious way of showing appreciation for their authors — the article also notes that the “left-wing poet, writer and journalist was a fierce critic of the government during the early years of the Turkish Republic. He was imprisoned at least twice and was killed in 1948 by an unknown assailant in a murder widely attributed to Turkey’s secret service.”

April 2016: Altaic Storytelling Newsbriefs

As of May 1, 2016, the controversial, so-called Biànmín Liánxì Kǎ (便民联系卡) will cease to be in use in Xinjiang, according to the authorities (不再使用).  The card (pictured here), which lists contact info for the card-holder’s hometown authorities, was supposedly intended to facilitate a variety of services when the Xinjiang resident was away from his or her official domicile, e.g., as a reliable ID when checking into a hotel. In practice, it took on the functions of something closer to an internal passport; without it, non-Han citizens in particular found it increasingly difficult to travel between cities (there are now frequent checkpoints), and there is anecdotal evidence that businesspeople could not obtain small loans without it. The news item states that the card — issued only with the approval of local authorities, and mocked by some Uyghur as “Good Citizen ID” (良民证) — came into circulation in May 2014.

An Evenki love story that spans the 1900-1950 period will launch at the end of April, according to an item on the China Writers Association web site that I’ve summarized in Reclaiming Evenki Narrative. Entitled 驯鹿角上的色带 (lit., colored ribbon on the reindeer’s horns), the novel is written by a 74-year-old woman named Balajieyi (芭拉杰依) whose mother was the Aoluguya Evenki’s last practicing shaman. [Read more…]

Reclaiming the Evenki Narrative: Last Shaman’s Daughter Tells her People’s 20th-century Tale

There are only 30,000 or so Evenki (鄂温克族) on the Chinese side of the Sino-Russian border. But this Tungusic-speaking, reindeer-herding people — particularly the group known as the Aoluguya Evenki — has been the subject of several award-winning documentaries and even a novel that won the Mao Dun Literature Prize in 2008. According to an article on the China Writer’s Association web site (最后一位萨满之女), a new novel featuring the Evenki will launch end April.

During 2007-14, Gu Tao (顾桃) shot five films documenting the twilight of the Evenki way of life, including Yuguo and his Mother (雨果的假期) and The Last Moose of Aoluguya (犴达罕). (For an excellent backgrounder on his works in French, click here) Chi Zijian’s novel, The Last Quarter of the Moon (额尔古纳河右岸), is based loosely on the same tribe’s often reluctant interactions with outsiders, first with the Japanese invaders under “Manchukuo,” and then the rapacious Han loggers and Marxist cadres of post-1949 “New China,” and has been translated into English (my version), Dutch, Italian, Spanish and Japanese, and will soon be available in French.

驯鹿角上的色带But take note: Neither Gu Tao and Chi Zijian are Evenki, though the former’s mother is Manchu (according to BBC’s web site). As far I know, their works have largely been well received in China, but they are not without potential controversy. I have watched several of Gu Tao’s documentaries on a set of CDs (not sure if these are final versions shown at film festivals abroad), and at times they are disturbing, the raw footage of some hard-drinking Evenki in particular. Chi Zijian’s novel is a bold experiment in its own right, as she, a monolingual Han writer, puts herself inside the head of the female Evenki narrator and recounts the entire tale in the first person.

In both cases, I can’t help wondering how these works of art would be viewed by indigenous peoples in Australia, Canada or the US, where “reclaiming the narrative” back from one’s colonizers is nowadays considered absolutely imperative. [Read more…]

Altaic Storytelling: What We’re Reading Now (2016.4.12)

Following Xinjiang's Kazakh herders during their winter migration

Following Xinjiang’s Kazakh herders during their winter migration

Just started 冬牧场 (lit, winter pasture) by Li Juan. In 2010, she was commissioned to live with a Kazakh family as they herded their camels, sheep and horses deep into the desert of southern Altay where they traditionally graze during the bitterly cold winter. Her job: To document the little known, semi-nomadic lifestyle of Xinjiang’s Kazakh that features seasonal migrations.

Li Juan (李娟) is a young female Han writer born in Xinjiang. She spent most of her childhood in Sichuan before returning, and by her own admission, speaks only a smattering of Kazakh. See here for an introduction to her writing — all of which revolves around Xinjiang — including links to translations of some of her shorter pieces. To date, within China her best known titles are probably two collections of essays entitled 我的阿勒泰 (lit, my Altay) and 阿勒泰的角落 (lit, corners of Altay).

Promotional copy on douban reads as follows:

2010年冬天,李娟跟随一家哈萨克牧民深入阿勒泰南部的冬季牧场、沙漠,度过了一段鲜为人知的荒野生活。作为第一位描写哈萨克民族冬牧生活的汉族作家,她以饱含深情、灵气飞扬又不失节制的文字,呈现出阿尔泰最后一批 “荒野主人” 冬季转场时的独特生存景观,令人叹为观止。

“阿尔泰古今讲故事” 本周精彩语录: 母语文本的纪录

我国学者数十年来致力于少数民族民间故事、诗歌谣谚、宗教口诵经典等的收集翻译整理,出版了大量翻译作品,取得了举世瞩目的成就,但其中也存在着一些遗憾和失误,这就是忽略了对少数民族民间作品母语文本的记录,有相当多的翻译整理本没有母语原本,没有逐字逐句的直译。这样的直接后果是,丧失了作品多方面的 科学价值,而且由于没有母语的承载,这些文本也难以作为相关民族后代传承文化的文本来使用。此外,由于缺乏语音记录和直译,相关民族特有的文化、社会和宗 教概念难以在汉文文本中全面正确地反映。鉴于此,今后在搜集整理少数民族民间文学作品时,应保留用国际音标记录或用本民族文字书写的严谨客观的母语文本。

(杨福泉,纳西族学者,中国民族报)

Jusup Mamay, Manaschi: A Rehabilitated Rightist and his Turkic Epic

A while back I stumbled upon a short Chinese news item about a newly discovered handwritten manuscript of the Kyrgyz Epic of Manas (玛纳斯史诗). This centuries-old trilogy in verse recounts the exploits of the legendary hero Manas, and his son and grandson in their struggle to resist external enemies and unite the Kyrgyz people. Along with heroic tales such as Dede Korkut and the Epic of Köroğlu, Manas is considered one of the great Turkic epic poems. To get a feeling for how it sounds, listen here to a brief recitation by Manas scholar Elmira Köçümkulkızı.

Mural of Manas in OshAccording to the report (手抄本被发现), a retired cadre named 吾米尔·毛力多 in Xinjiang’s Wuqia County recently donated a 570,000-line, Kyrgyz-language Manas libretto to the local branch of the China Federation of Literary and Art Circles.

Based on the notes of a famous Manas storyteller or manaschi named 艾什玛特·玛木别朱素普, the text was painstakingly hand-copied by the cadre in the 1950s. At some point during the Cultural Revolution he learned the original had been seized and burnt, so he wrapped his own copy in several layers of cowhide and buried it in his courtyard for safekeeping.

“Now,” the news report quotes him, “I figure it is time to let this hand-copied manuscript see the light of day.”

Intrigued by the gap in time between the manuscript’s burial and its “re-discovery”— after all, the Cultural Revolution ended almost 40 years ago — I wondered why the text of an ancient Turkic epic like Manas is so politically sensitive. [Read more…]

Soft Power Strategy: Where Does China Figure in Turkey’s Literary Translation Program?

Turkey's funding for literary translation into other tongues: Bulgarian editions outnumber Chinese 10:1

Turkey’s funding for literary translation into other tongues: Bulgarian editions outnumber Chinese 10:1

Over the last 11 years, Turkey has spent US$4.4m to fund translation and publication of fiction by Turkish authors via its TEDA grant program, according to Turkish Books, an article that appeared in the Hürriyet Daily on February 24, 2016. TEDA’s own chart shows that just 24 titles appeared in Chinese as a result, compared to 258 in German, 147 in Arabic, 100 in Persian, 103 in English, and 65 in French.

Oh, yes, and 251 in . . . Bulgarian, a language with an estimated number of less than 10 million native speakers. Granted, Bulgaria was ruled by the Ottomans, so nostalgia may be a factor here. But still, one has to wonder: Who determines how TEDA’s funds are spent, and what is their soft power strategy?

Chinese readers can be forgiven if the only Turkish author they’ve ever heard of is 奥尔罕·帕慕克 (Orhan Pamuk) as rendered我脑袋里的怪东西 by translator 陈竹冰 (Chen Zhubing). Pamuk’s latest novel, Kafamda Bir Tuhaflı (A Strangeness in My Mind) has just been launched in Chinese by Shanghai People’s Publishing House (我脑袋里的怪东西). After all, at least 10 of his novels have appeared in Chinese and he is very popular in the PRC.

The number of Turkish authors available in Chinese is rather short (see here for a partial list), but the good news is that Turkey’s most famous 20th century work of fiction, Tanpınar’s Saatleri Ayarlama Enstitüsü (The Time Regulation Institute) is being translated and may — according to Istanbul’s Kalem Agency — appear in Chinese within 2017. Elif Şafak is also fairly well known, but her novels normally appear first in Taiwan.

List: Modern China-based Evenki Authors & Their Published Works

* Under Construction *

Modern China-based Evenki Authors &

Their Published Works

 

Screen Shot 2015-11-27 at 8.56.19 PMThis list is based mainly on authors published in 2015 in 《新时期中国少数民族文学作品选集·鄂温克族卷》(lit, Selected Fiction by Ethnic Minority Writers in the New Period, Evenki Volume, at left), but I’ve added in many of their other published short stories and novels. All links are to Chinese text unless the linked word is in English.

Although the Evenki live on both sides of the Amur, my list below covers only those in the PRC. Of course, there were Evenki poets born and raised in the Soviet Union, such as Alitet Nikolaevich Nemtushkin, and Nikolaĭ Oëgir, who both used an Evenki script developed in Soviet times.

If you’re keen to learn the current state of Evenki as a spoken language, see Tungusic Languages Under Threat. Evenki Place Names behind the Hànzì also makes interesting reading.

If you have anything to add or correct, please leave a comment!

阿日坤:

安娜: 访鄂温克族女作家安娜 . 《金霞和银霞》,《牧野上,她发现一颗星》,《牧野深处的眷恋》,《心波》,《飞驰的天使》,《芦苇荡的回声》,《哈迪姑姑》,《静谧的原野》,《欢腾的伊敏河》,《摇篮·摇篮曲》,《心潮》,《祝福您鄂温克》

娜仁托雅:

敖蓉: 鄂温克的气息.《神奇部落的神秘女人》,《映山红》,《古娜吉》

白淑琴:

道日娜:

德纯燕: 《美丽新世界》, 《初长成》, 《好时光》, 《旅行者》

德柯丽: 《小驯鹿的故事》 [Read more…]

Ethnic ChinaLit Excerpt of the Week: Zha Jianying on Ji Xianlin’s “The Cowshed”

Nearly 20 years after the appearance in China of one of the most shocking first-person narratives of the Cultural Revolution, The Cowshed: Memories of the Chinese Cultural Revolution (牛棚杂忆, 季羡林著), The New York Review of Books has published the book in English. Written by Ji Xianlin, the account appears with a new introduction by Zha Jianying (查建英), a writer and media critic based in New York. The following is excerpted by from NYT’s interview with Zha Jianying (Remembering the Cultural Revolution):

Q. When “The Cowshed” was published in China in 1998, it is supposed to have been widely read. Was that really the case? These days in Beijing, the Cultural Revolution is a rare topic. People shrug their shoulders and barely recall Ji or what he went through. How do you account for this?

A. Time is obviously a factor. A less obvious but more important factor is censorship. The forgetfulness hasn’t happened naturally; there is something insidious behind the phenomenon. The human desire to turn away from past trauma is perhaps universal, but the amnesia many Chinese display these days is highly selective. If you ask them about the Opium War or the Japanese invasion, for instance, they won’t shrug their shoulders; they are likely to treat you with a lecture. Those events occurred much earlier, yet are well remembered because the state constantly reminds people about China’s humiliation at foreign hands. Every Chinese kid is schooled in those history lessons. But an internal mess? That’s a totally different matter. The Cultural Revolution was instigated by Mao, supported by the entire party leadership, with millions of Chinese participating in the violence and persecution. It’s a thoroughly homemade nightmare. And the same party continues to rule today. So is it surprising that the topic has been quietly muzzled? Do you wonder why the government would like people to forget about it and why many Chinese happily obliged?

Ethnic ChinaLit: February 2016 Newsbriefs

Richard Bernstein reviews Perry Link’s translation of physicist Fang Lizhi’s autobiography, Most Wanted Man in China, and Ji Xianlin’s The Cowshed. (Enemy of the State)

International publishers, booksellers and free speech advocates have penned an open letter to HK head honcho Leung Chun-ying calling for him to defend HK’s interests in the face of China’s forced disappearances and detention of five HK-based publishing professionals. (Renditions)

The New York Times reports that Yang Jisheng (杨继绳), author of 墓碑, a controversial book on the Great Chinese Famine of 1958-61 — translated and published as Tombstone — has been told he cannot go to the US in March to accept an award from Harvard U for his “ambitious and fearless reporting.”  (Travel Ban

Writer and media critic Zha Jianying on Ji Xianlin’s newly translated The Cowshed: Memories of the Chinese Cultural Revolution (牛棚杂忆, 季羡林著). (Remembering the Cultural Revolution)

Perhat Tursun, le Salman Rushdie de Chine: En 1999, le romancier ouïghour sortait son Art du suicide et allait immédiatement être la cible de menaces de mort. Aujourd’hui, il se remet enfin à écrire. (Profil)

Liu Cixin’s much acclaimed sci-fi novel, The Three-body Problem (三体, 刘慈欣著), has reportedly sold 110,000 copies worldwide as of end 2015.  According to the report, this refers to the first part of the trilogy. The second, The Dark Forest, is also out, and the third, Death’s End, will be published in 2016. (全球销量)

Uyghurche ئۇيغۇرچە Уйғурчә | Uyghur language and culture for English-speakers features an excerpt from a translation of one of Memtimin Hoshur’s longer short stories, This Is Not A Dream (بۇ چۈش ئەمەس), as well as translations of a few others of his works.  (uyghurche.net

China’s ambassador to Bangladesh demands – and obtains his wish – that Last Words, farewell letters from

Ritu Sarin and Tenzing Sonam’s ‘Last Words’ series after censorship

Ritu Sarin and Tenzing Sonam’s ‘Last Words’ series after censorship

Tibetans before they self-immolated in China, be excised from the Dhaka Art Summit (Feb 5-8). (Last Words)

The obligatory annual round-up of writing by minority authors has been published at Chinawriter.com.cn. Yang Yumei, a member of the Dong people who holds a Ph D. in ethnic literature (杨玉梅, 侗族), follows the traditional format — writers are generally identified and grouped by their ethnicity — and touches on several dozens of non-Han authors and their 2015 works deemed worthy by the literary establishment. This year’s theme appears to be fiction that highlights the patriotic contribution of all nationalities to the campaign to liberate China from Japanese aggression in the 30s and through the end of World War II  (文学使命的新实践) [Read more…]