Tibetan, Daur, Evenki and Oroqen Databases Appraised by Experts

According to China’s Ministry of Education (数据库), several minority language projects underway during the current 12th Five-year Plan (2011-15) have been appraised and approved by experts. They are:

  • Database of Modern Tibetan Grammar Research (现代藏语语法信息辞典数据库研究)
  • Database of Daur, Evenki and Oroqen Voice Acoustic Parameters (达斡尔、鄂温克和鄂伦春语语音声学参数数据库)

Undertaken by the Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (中国社会科学院民族学与人类学研究所), applications for these databases include promotion of minority language education, language engineering research, and in the case of the Tibetan database, text annotation and machine translation. [Read more…]

China Ethnic Dictionary Project: Yunnan’s Lahu Next in Line

The compilation of a Chinese-Lahu dictionary officially began in Kunming on April 14, according to a report on the拉祜族邮票 Institute of Ethnic Literature site (编篡工作在昆明启动). Some 100 Lahu scholars met to discuss the reference book, scheduled for publication in 2015, that will comprise over two million words of text.

The Lāhù (拉祜族) are one of the 56 peoples recognized by the PRC. In China they number 475,000 and are concentrated within the Lancang River Basin in Yunnan Province around Pu’er and Lincang, but some 160,000 also inhabit Myanmar, Vietnam and Laos. Experts believe the Lahu’s origins lie in the ancient nomadic Qiang people (羌人) of Gansu and Qinghai.

The China Ethnic Dictionary Project (中国少数民族大辞典) aims to compile 16 dictionaries. According to the report re-published by the Institute of Ethnic Literature, three have been completed (Bai, Hani and Naxi) and another two—for the Dai and Wa languages—will soon be.

Just how the dictionary will be formatted was not mentioned. However, the recently launched Miao-Han Dictionary (苗汉辞典) may well serve as a model. It featured:

  • Pronunciation using international phonetic alphabet (IPA)
  • Bilingual text
  • Sample sentences

Visit here for links to several Lahu films.

Tibetan Epic “King Gesar” Published in 8-volume Chinese-language Edition

A comprehensive 8-volume, 2-million word translation of the Tibetan classic “King Gesar” (格萨尔王传) has just been published in Chinese by Higher Education Press (高等教育出版社), according to a report carried on China Ethnic Literature Network (中国民族文学网).

The traditional Epic of King Gesar (Tibetan: གེ་སར་རྒྱལ་པོ), believed to date from the 12th century, relates the heroic deeds of Gesar, the fearless lord of the legendary Kingdom of Ling. It is recorded variously in poetry and prose, and is performed widely throughout Central Asia. According to Wikipedia, besides versions of the tale conserved by PRC-based minorities such as the Bai, Naxi, Pumi, Lisu and Yugur peoples, other variations are also found among the Burushaski-speaking Burusho of Hunza and Gilgit, the Kalmyk and Ladakhi peoples, in Baltistan, in Sikkim, Bhutan, Nepal, and among various Tibeto-Burmese, Turkish, and Tunghus tribes. The first printed version was a Mongolian text published in Beijing in 1716.

The 8 volumes in the new translation are: 卡切玉宗, 辛丹内讧, 歇日珊瑚宗, 雪山水晶宗, 象雄穆德宗, 阿达拉姆, 大食财宝宗, and 丹玛青稞宗. The texts were translated by more than ten Tibetan specialists including 角巴东主、索南卓玛 and多杰才让.

A bit earlier this year an excerpt from Howard Goldblatt and Sylvia Lin’s translation of Alai’s King Gesar was released, and can be seen here.

African Literature in China: Still Stuck on “Things Fall Apart”?

China’s 21-century investment in Africa is massive, multifaceted and a cause of anxiety for leaders in Washington, London, Paris and among the continent’s other former colonial masters, as well as New Delhi. But China is not just busy building airports and railways in Africa, or inking deals to monopolize the exploitation and export of valuable minerals and fossil fuels for decades to come.

The exercise of “soft power” is very much on the agenda too. China-funded Confucius Institutes—promoting the teaching of Chinese language and culture—are popping up throughout Africa, including Egypt and Morocco in the Arab world, and several sub-Saharan countries, including Benin, Botswana, Cameroon, Kenya, Nigeria and Rwanda.

In return, one might well ask: what is China “importing,” culture-wise, from Africa?  If the translation and publication of African writing in Chinese is anything to go by, the continent is hardly a blip on China’s cultural radar.

Internet research and our interviews with Chinese publishers indicate that the golden age of African literature in Chinese translation may well have been during the 1980s. Foreign Literature Publishing House (外国文学出版社), empowered by Beijing’s policy of promoting solidarity with the Third World back then, translated and published a fair number of African works such as those by Nigerian (Wole Soyinka), Kenyan (James Ngugi), Senegalese (Leopold Sengor) and Algerian (Mouland Mammeri) writers, as well as collections of folk tales for children, etc.

To read the rest of this article, click here.

The Transparent Translator: Cindy Carter on “Dream of Ding Village”

Dream of Ding VillageHere’s my interview with Cindy Carter, Chinese-to-English translator of Dream of Ding Village:

Bruce Humes (Ethnic ChinaLit): You studied Japanese and lived in Japan for several years before moving to Beijing. Has your knowledge of Japanese, the people and/or the language been useful to you in mastering Chinese? What made you willing to leave Japan to pursue your writing career in China?

Cindy Carter: Japan was the path that led me to China. These days, it probably makes better sense to do one’s studies the other way around, but back in the 1980s, Japan was the economic powerhouse, the modern miracle, and China was just an afterthought, the slow cousin, an object of fascination for classicists and linguists. . .certainly not the most obvious starting point for anyone wanting to understand the rubric of 20th century geopolitics or economic development in Asia. For every nascent Sinologist, there seemed to be a dozen budding specialists in Korean or Japanese contemporary history, politics or economics, and I was one of the latter. I did consider adding Chinese to a minor in Japanese and majors in Economics and Political Science, but decided it was more than I could handle and still manage to graduate in 4 years. I’ve been kicking myself in the arse for that lack of foresight ever since. [Read more…]

New Software for Yi, Zhuang, Tibetan, Uygur, Kazakh and Kyrgyz Applications

Xinhuanet reports (Minority Language Translation Software) that the China Ethnic Languages Translation Bureau has announced the development of several software programs for non-Han languages in China: 

These programs include electronic dictionaries for the characters of the Yi and Zhuang ethnic groups [彝文电子词典及辅助翻译软件 and 壮文电子词典及辅助翻译软件], a proofreading tool for the Zhuang ethnic language [壮文校对软件], and transcoding applications [编码转换软件] for the languages of the Tibetan, Uygur, Kazakh and Kyrgyz ethnicities, according to a statement released Friday by the State Ethnic Affairs Commission.

“Sons of Heaven, Brothers of Nature: The Naxi of Southwest China”

Writes author Pedro Ceinos Arcones in his introduction to this new work on the Naxi, renowned for their Dongba pictographic language:

Every year thousands of travelers from all around the world visit the Naxi region [of Yunnan], turning their former isolation into a permanent exhibition of their land and homes. During their stay in Lijiang they come into contact with some of the most outstanding characteristics of Naxi culture: Dongba pictographs, Old City traditional architecture, Alili popular dance, ethnic clothes, Baisha mural paintings, Dongjing music, etc., but unfortunately these dispersed manifestations of the Naxi culture fail to provide an overall understanding of the Naxi people, remaining instead as touristic activities without a link to the soul of the people who created them, and part of whose spiritual world they are.

This first and sudden contact with the Naxi culture arouses the interest of many travelers that unfortunately cannot find any materials with which to satiate their thirst. This book was written to fill this void. Blending the most interesting Chinese and western academic materials in an easily readable and understandable guide to Naxi culture and history, we want to let the outside world understand the human environment of Lijiang, to help travelers fully enjoy their visit to the lands of the Naxi, and to provide our readers with a permanent emotional link to one of the most fascinating ethnic groups on Earth: The Naxi.

The Sons of Heaven, Brothers of Nature: The Naxi of Southwest China is available here on Amazon. Read a review by Duncan Poupard at the Naxi Script Resource Center. To contact the author, e-mail him at peceinos (at) hotmail.com

And here is the Table of Contents: [Read more…]

Scholar Critiques Media Coverage of Newly Published Miao Classic “King Yalu”

China media’s recent high-profile reportage of the launch of volume one of the first-ever bilingual version of King Yalu (亚鲁王), a Miao historical epic passed down orally, has been labelled “unscientific” (媒体对 《亚鲁王》报道不科学) by an academic whose views carry weight.

Traditionally sung over several days at a funeral, King Yalu is the story of war, defeat and migration of the western Miao tribes in Guizhou from their traditional homes in places such as Anshun (安顺). Legend has it that King Yalu was the 18th in a line of Miao rulers.

The scholar in question happens to be Chogjin (朝戈金), Chair of the Department of Ethnic Minority Literature in the Graduate School of the distinguished China Academy of Social Sciences.  He is an ethnic Mongolian and has an impressive résumé in oral literary research.

In particular, he rejects the assertion—proclaimed in the Chinese press and trumpeted in English by Chinadaily—that the origins of King Yalu doubtless go back more than 2,500 years.  In his brief but informative essay, Chogjin also notes: [Read more…]

Tsering Norbu’s “Amerika”: Village Life in 21st Century Tibet – with a Twist

Only a handful of Tibetans who write fiction in Chinese have seen their work published in English, but Tsering Norbu has recently joined this elite. Here’s a brief intro to his Amerika (阿米日嘎,次仁罗布著):

A farmer in rural Tibet invests his life savings and more to purchase a breeding bull imported all the way from “Amerika” — an act that drives his fellow villagers green with envy. When the farmer’s prized bull dies in suspicious circumstances, a Public Security Bureau officer is called in from the county town to investigate. This short story provides a witty insight into the fragile social structures at the base of village life in modern-day Tibet.

Translated by Petula Parris-Huang, Amerika will appear in the soon-to-be published Anthology of New Stories from China (2006-2009). Earlier this year Tsering Norbu’s A Sheep Released to Life (放生羊) was published in issue 2 of Pathlight, the new English-language magazine showcasing contemporary Chinese fiction.

Tsering Norbu will be speaking with Alai on the topic of Ancient Myths in Contemporary Fiction on April 17 at the London Book Fair.

Seediq Bale, the Novel: Out now in French as “Les Survivants”

One of just 9 films to be shortlisted for this year’s Best Foreign Language Film at the Academy Awards in Hollywood, Seediq Bale (《賽德克·巴萊》) is a 4.5-hour epic about one Taiwanese aboriginal tribe’s war of resistance against the Japanese in the 1930s, shot entirely in the Seediq language.

As is often the case with contemporary Chinese literature, a French publisher has published the novel itself before any Anglophone publisher has got around to it. Entitled Les Survivants, it is co-translated from the Chinese into French by Esther Lin and Emmanuelle Péchenard.

On his French blog, Bernard Mialaret reports (Drame de la colonisation):

Après la défaite chinoise, le traité de Shimonoseki en 1895, cède l’île au Japon jusqu’en 1945. Une politique d’assimilation est engagée, la langue japonaise est imposée, les tatouages traditionnels et les ablations dentaires sont interdits. En 1926, les Atayals rendent 1300 fusils, « l’arme étant le bien le plus précieux du chasseur » (p.90) mais les crânes, « objets sacrificiels » sont conservés.

En octobre 1930, un incident entre le fils de Mona Rudao, chef d’une tribu Sedeq et un policier japonais, conduisit à l’élimination par « fauchage » des têtes de 130 Japonais qui assistaient à une manifestation sportive à Musha. La réplique massive des Japonais avec des armes modernes, entraîna des suicides en masse de Sedeq. En avril 1931, les aborigènes d’une autre tribu Sedeq, les Tuuda, à l’instigation des Japonais, « fauchèrent » une centaine de corps !

Les survivants furent déportés au village de « l’île entre deux eaux ».Et c’est là que Wuhe [舞鹤] va séjourner en 1997 et 1998 pour enquêter sur les « Evènements de Musha ».