“Daur Epic Narratives”: New Approach Aims to Capture Original Daur Flavor

达斡尔英雄叙事A few years ago, oral epics of non-Han peoples in China — if ever published — tended to be presented in Chinese (translation). To the uninitiated, this implied that these tales existed just in Chinese.

More recently, bilingual versions have occasionally appeared, i.e., with the original language printed in IPA or a script familiar only to scholars, and a fluent translation provided in Chinese.

Daur Epic Narratives (达斡尔英雄叙事) goes a step further by providing the full tale in Daur (written in Latin letters), a word-by-word literal translation in Chinese characters on the facing page, and then a full, fluent translation of the entire text in modern Chinese. This should allow the reader — be s/he Daur or anyone fluent in written Chinese — to get a better feeling of how the original was told, and how Daur idioms differ from Chinese.

Daur is a Mongolic language. According to Wikipedia (Daur), during the Qing Dynasty, it was written with the Manchu alphabet, but currently “There is no written standard in use, although a Pinyin-based orthography has been devised; instead the Daur make use of Mongolian or Chinese, as most speakers know these languages as well.”

Inner Mongolia: Tardy Legal Move to Protect Oroqen Culture it Once Suppressed

Inner Mongolia has just passed a law aimed at protecting the culture of the Elunchun (鄂伦春), also known as the Oroqen, according to an item republished at Chinawriter.com.cn (鄂伦春传统文化).

Like the Evenki portrayed in Chi Zijian’s Last Quarter of the Moon, the Oroqen speak a Tungusic tongue, and their population has markedly declined since the PRC was founded in 1949.  Similar to the Evenki in Heilongjiang, and other Siberian peoples in the Soviet Union in the 1950s, China’s Oroqen were accused of superstitious beliefs and forced to abandon their Shamanistic rituals. For details, see The Last Oroqen Shaman of Northeast China.  

A few factoids from the article at Chinawriter.com.cn:

  • 1996: Authorities ban Oroqen from hunting within their “Oroqen Autonomous Banner” territory.
  • 2010: Oroqen population estimated at 8,659 persons.
  • 2014: “Regulations regarding protection of traditional folk culture of the Oroqen people of the Oroqen Autonomous Banner,” passed and set for implementation beginning October. It calls for a “traditional folk culture” fund, and the establishment of an “Oroqen Ecology Protection Zone” (鄂伦春生态保护区).

July 2014: Update on Uyghur Writers and Writing as Crackdown Gains Momentum

In the wake of two high-profile and deadly attacks reportedly carried out by Uyghurs outside of their traditional homeland, the Chinese

Signatures of writers and translators on "Open Letter to our Uyghur Compatriots"

Signatures of writers and translators on “Open Letter to our Uyghur Compatriots”

authorities have launched a multi-faceted campaign to crush what they see as a terrorist movement that aims at founding an independent state in the Xinjiang autonomous region covering one-sixth of Chinese territory.

I am referring here to the Beijing “2013 Tian’anmen Square Attack” in which a 4 x 4 crashed into a crowd and burst into flames near Mao’s famous portrait, killing the passengers and two tourists, while injuring 38. And on March 1 this year, eight knife-wielding attackers appeared at the Kunming train station in Yunnan Province, and reportedly slashed 29 people to death while injuring 140 others.

As we enter Ramadan (June 28-July 27), when pious Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset, Radio Free Asia (Anti-Terrorism Measures) reports that the authorities in Ürümqi are taking the strictest measures ever to ensure that there are no “incidents” during this, the most important month in the Muslim calendar. They include: newly installed surveillance cameras in mosques; preparation for “sudden-strike” searches of Uyghur households to break up unauthorized gatherings; requiring halal restaurants to remain open during the hours of the fast; and Muslim students at university will attend “patriotic study” classes and eat in the school canteen during the day so that they cannot practice fasting.

It should be noted, however, that some of RFA’s information about the crackdown comes from a spokesperson for the World Uyghur Congress, an organization of exiled Uyghur groups that is based outside China.

Alat Asem, Bilingual Uyghur author

Alat Asem, Bilingual Uyghur author

Meanwhile, how is the crackdown impacting the “official” literary scene? Here are a few May-June factoids for your reference: [Read more…]

Manchu Novelists: Storytellers First, and Partial to the Spoken Language

满族小说与中华文化A conference on the unique contribution of Manchu novelists was held in Beijing on June 6, 2014, to celebrate the publication of 满族小说与中华文化 (Manchu novels and Chinese culture). The book is the result of a project sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Fund (社科基金项目).

Editor Guan Jixin (关纪新), a Manchu himself, conceded that not long after the Manchu took power, they applied themselves earnestly to mastering Chinese culture, and as a result, early on most lost the ability—and/or the desire—to  write literature in their own tongue. While that may have been a loss to the Manchu, it was decidedly a plus for Chinese literature as a whole.

The work appears to be a creative and broad-ranging look at Chinese-language fiction by ethnic Manchu from the Qing Dynasty to the present.  A quick summary of a few of the more intriguing topics covered in this book: [Read more…]

“The Mysterious Realm of Lop Nur” and “Curse of Kanas Lake”: Xinjiang’s Answer to Tibetan Fiction Fever?

The phenomenal success of He Ma’s The Tibet Code (《藏地密码》, 何马著)—reportedly over 3m volumes sold—has罗布泊秘境 spawned a host of thrillers and mysteries driven by a similar fascination with Tibetan history, religion and relics. The popular 3-volume Tibetan Mastiff (藏獒) by Yang Zhijun (杨治军), now an animated film co-produced by a Sino-Japanese partnership, is just one example.

But Tibet is certainly not the only area of the People’s Republic rich in non-Han culture and history with strong
potential for such fiction. Two novels by former journalist Jueluo Kanglin (觉罗康林), including the newly launched 罗布泊秘境 (literally, The Mysterious Realm of Lop Nur), are bound to raise Xinjiang’s profile among aficionados of the “exploration thriller” genre.

As a site engendering curiosity and even fascination, Lop Nur’s credentials are impeccable and ancient: archaeologists unearthed the (controversial) Tarim mummies along the lake (Lop Nur means “Lop lake”); explorers such as Marco Polo, Ferdinand von Richthofen, Nikolai Przhevalsky, Sven Hedin and Aurel Stein all set foot in the area; and more recently, Chinese scientist Peng Jiamu disappeared there (1980), and Chinese explorer Yu Chunshun died trying to walk across Lop Nur (1996).

In a recent interview about his new novel (锡伯族作家), Jueluo Kanglin mentioned several international explorers and others such as Japan’s Zuicho Tachibana and France’s Pierre Gabriel Édouard Bonvalot, but the author did not detail which aspects of the Lop Nur “legend” he delves into in his novel. [Read more…]

“Duobukuer River”: Daur Writer Paints Brighter Future of One Who Left the Greater Khingan Range Behind

多布库尔河 萨娜Ever since I completed my translation of Han author Chi Zijian’s Last Quarter of the Moon, set in the Greater Khingan Range (大兴安岭) that divides the Manchurian plain of northeastern China from the Mongolian Plateau of Inner Mongolia, I’ve been wondering: How would one of the indigenous nomadic peoples, an Evenki, Oroqen or Daur for instance, recount the tale of how they lost their mountains, rivers and shamans, only to face modern life in “fixed settlements,” or even as migrants to big cities where the Han dominate?

With Sa Na’s new untranslated novel 《多布库尔河》 (literally, Duobukuer River), we have one answer, according to a book review that appeared recently on the web site of the China Writers Association (鄂伦春族的心灵秘史).

Sa Na (萨娜) is a Daur (达斡尔族) born in Yakeshi in the northern part of the Greater Khingan Range, although her story’s protagonists are Oroqen (鄂伦春族), a people related to the Evenki (鄂温克族) featured in Chi Zijian’s novel.

I haven’t read Sa Na’s novel, so my impressions are based solely on the review. But the similarities between Duobukuer River and Chi Zijian’s 2006 novel are striking: [Read more…]

Jangar Culture & Arts Palace Opens in Xinjiang

With the recent opening of the “Jangar Culture & Arts Palace” (江格尔文化艺术宫), China’s campaign to project itself as a nation with a rich multi-ethnic past and present continues apace.  According to a report republished on the web site of the China Writers Association (建成投用), the building covers over 6,000 square meters and cost almost US$10 million to construct.

Xinjiang’s Hoboksar Mongol Autonomous County (和布克赛尔蒙古自治县) is reputed to be the birthplace of the JangarJangar Epic (江格尔史诗), a unique form of Mongolian storytelling and dance dating back to the 15th century. It recounts the battle between the forces of good — Jangar, elected Khan at just seven years of age — and evil, represented by the monster Mangus. Leading some 35 generals and 8,000 warriors, Jangar defeats the monster, keeps his homeland free from occupation, and eventually establishes a Mongolian-style utopia.

Along with the Tibetan King Gesar and Manas of the Kyrgyz, Life of Jangar is now officially considered by the authorities in Beijing as one of the three great epics of ancient Chinese literature. According to some in the field, however, recognition of this among the mainstream Chinese population has yet to occur. As cited elsewhere on my blog (Plight of Native Language Literature), one ethnic literature specialist in the PRC notes that these tales “have all become the object of global studies in the genre. But there is not even a basic introduction to these three epics in our histories of Chinese literature.”

But thanks to the fine publication Oral Tradition, a detailed overview of the birth and development of this Mongolian classic is available in English. The Oirat Epic Cycle of Jangar is written by Chao Gejin (朝戈金), a Mongolian with a Ph D in Folklore who serves as Deputy Director of the Institute of Ethnic Literature under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. It contains much interesting detail about Jangarichi (the bards who perform the story) the language of the cantos, and five different types of text: retold texts, dictated texts, manuscripts, transcriptions of audio recordings, and lithographed and modern printings.

It is refreshing to see that he notes that many Jangar manuscripts were destroyed during the Cultural Revolution, and some Jangarichi even briefly imprisoned. Such admissions are rare in the Chinese-language reports that I read on the website of The Institute of Ethnic Literature. Chao Gejin also mentions that Jangar manuscripts have been discovered in Russia and Mongolia, but “we do not have further information about the discoveries.” It appears that such cross-border ethnic research projects are rather sensitive, politically speaking; that’s an impression I also got when researching the Evenki —  who straddle both sides of the Sino-Russian border — for my translation of Chi Zijian’s Last Quarter of the Moon.

Excerpt: Uyghur Writer Alat Asem’s “Sidik Golden MobOff”

Here’s an excerpt from my translation of Sidik Golden MobOff (《斯迪克金子关机》) by the bilingual Uyghur author, Alat Asem (阿拉提 · 阿斯木), that is published in full in Issue 14 of Chutzpah!:

IN A WORLD of snow and ice, buses began to budge and Muslims began to discuss Sidik Golden MobOff in hushed tones.

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One comment reached my ears from a bus seat behind me. “In summary, this deceased mate of ours was a rather odd fellow, and the words at my disposal are insufficient to dissect his temperament.”

An old gentleman seated in front of me, sporting a modest, not fully white beard with intermingled deposits of grey (like the striped skin of a Xinjiang cantaloupe), had an amiable look about him. He sighed at length, and pronounced: “Folk good and bad both die, but the bad all die in wintertime.”

I didn’t speak out immediately, because the people in this place live according to long- standing custom. If someone has a beard, you bite your tongue and offer up a smile, even if you are the one endowed with heavenly wisdom.

I once remarked to Sidik Golden MobOff that this is the kind of place where bearded men aren’t friendly, and friendly men don’t wear beards. He said that beards represent time, and friendliness is greed, and it’s all one and the same.

But at the time I couldn’t help myself. “Esteemed Elder Brother,” I said, “pardon me, for I’m young and unbearded. But hearing what was just said, the heart itches and the mouth is hot, and I also want to say a word or two.

“As young as I am, I count not a few friends among Elder Brothers, and know truckfuls of knowledgeable Gentlemen and lesser types, and I’ve chewed on my share of ancient books and works by current authors, but I’ve yet to hear this adage: ‘The bad all die in the wintertime.’ Pray tell, Elder Brother, are you a university genius, or an Immortal from a seat of learning in the Heavens?”

Elder Brother turned around and looked me straight in the eye. “Whom do you take yourself for?”

“A person complete with a nose, ears and eyes.”

“You’re still young,” said Elder Brother. “When you’ve lived to my age, come look for me again.” [Read more…]

20th-century Saga of the Reindeer-herding Evenki to Be Rendered in Turkish

Dedalus Kitap has purchased the Turkish publishing rights to Chi Zijian’s Last Quarter of the Moon, confirms Grayhawk Agency’s Gray Tan,who represents the author worldwide. The novel has already appeared in English (my rendition), ItalianDutch, and Spanish too.

The_Last_Quarter_of_the_MoonThis seems especially fitting, as the Evenki speak a Tungusic tongue that—like Turkish and Mongolian—is a member of the Altaic family of languages.

Narrated in the first person by the aged wife of the last chieftain of an Evenki clan, Last Quarter of the Moon (额尔古纳河右岸) is a moving tale of the decline of reindeer-herding nomads in the sparsely populated, richly forested mountains that border on Russia.

Over the last three centuries, three waves of outsiders have encroached upon the Evenki’s isolated way of life: the Russians, whose warring and plundering eventually pushed the Evenki down from Siberia to the southern bank of the Argun River, the tributary of the Amur that defines the Sino-Russian border; the Japanese, who forcibly recruited them into the ranks of the Manchukuo Army; and the Han Chinese of the People’s Republic, who felled the forests that are crucial to the survival of reindeer, outlawed hunting, and eventually coerced the Evenki to leave the mountains for life in a “civilized” permanent settlement.

“Manba Rasang” (满巴扎仓): Secret Mongolian Pharmacopoeia, Manchu Villains and a Stubborn Translator

The editor wanted to title the nouvella The Mongolian Pharmacist (蒙古药师), but Mongolian-to-Mandarin translator Hasen (哈森) resisted. After all, she argued, the setting for this new thriller was Manba Rasang Temple in 19th century Ordos. It served as a center for studies of ancient traditional medicine and treatment, and was frequented by Mongols, Tibetans, Manchus and Han. She didn’t want potential readers to mistake the story for just another piece of “popular fiction.”

Hasen got her way, and it was published in the Dec 2014 edition of People’s Literature magazine as 《满巴扎仓》(Manba Rasang). If you’re interested in why she was so keen on the story, read her 《满巴扎仓》翻译漫谈. The author is Ayonga (阿云嘎), a Mongolian raised in Inner Mongolia.

Given the huge success of The Tibet Code (藏地密码,何马著) by Han author He Ma—with sales of over 1m copies—it was to be expected that writers who grew up on the borderlands of the PRC and speak a language like Uyghur, Tibetan or Mongolian, would seek to tell tales inspired by their people’s unique history. [Read more…]